After Ottoman Empire

ottmanI am going to shed light on what happened after dissolving Ottoman empire. Before starting, we need to know as to Ottoman empire. Ottoman empire was founded by Osman at the end of the 13th century. Ottomans ruled large areas of the middle east, eastern Europe and North africa. The countries which were ruled by Ottoman which are now Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Egypt, Greece, Israel, Palestine, Romania, Lebanon and Bulgaria.

During the reign of Suleiman the magnificent. Ottomans were known for their achievements in art, science and medicine. Istanbul was called artistic hub round the globe. The Ottoman calligraphy, painting, ceramics, poetry, textiles, carpet waving and music were famous throughout the world. Science was regarded the important field of study. The Ottoman learned and studied astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, physics and geography. The Ottoman were advanced in medicine. They invented various kinds of instruments which are still used today such as forceps, Catheter, scalpels, pincers, and lancets.

When world war I started. Ottoman empire was on the verge of collapsing as Ottomans had lost most of territories to Russia, British, Greece, and France. Slowly, Ottomans were not able to continue their legacy. It was officially ended in 1922 and Turkey was declared a republic in 1923.

Now, it’s time to expound on what happened after dissolving Ottoman empire. The Birtish foreign policy was clear in the middle east. They played a divide an rule policy against muslims.

In world war I, Ottoman was fighting on the side of Germany even though it was a declining power but still controlled much of the middle east. After Ottoman empire was defeated, British and France fell on its carcass and divided between them.

During the first world war, British appealed to the Arab feudal lords to support and abet British imperials in overthrowing Ottoman rule of their territories in exchange for British guarantee for postwar independence

Sherif Hussein came out in revolt against the Ottoman empire in 1916 with the underpin of British. The British imperials helped him militarily and financial.

After some time, British and France covertly agreed to divide middle east between their zones of Influence. But France and British didn’t want United Arabia but a weak and disunited Arabia. In this way they can control middle east easily without dissent. All the middle east was under their suzerainty.

When Turkey was completely defeated by British and France. Sherif Hussein proclaimed the new ruler of Arabia including Hijaz. Another war broke out between Hussein and Abdul ibn saud over the supremacy. The British government was in a dilemma over the situation. Both were loyals to British and they abetted British against Ottoman empire. British had been in spilt on who to champion as the leader of the revolt against Ottoman empire.

British favoured Al saud because he was more loyal, amicable, trustworthy and whose pretensions were limited to Arabia.

In 1920 ibn Saud’s 150000 strong ikhwani captured and gained control of Arabia including Hijaz and holy places, defeating Hussien for supremacy in the region.

The conquest of Arabia cost the lives of around 4,00,000 people and over a million people flee to another countries. It is said that Saudi ruling family crossed all limits over supremacy. Al saud family was regarded a lecher and blood-thirty autocrat whose savagery wreaked havoc across Arabia.

By the mid- 1920’s most of Arabia had been subdued, 40,000 people were executed publicly and 350000 had been tortured.

The British recognised Ibn Saud’s control of Arabia under the suzerainty of British. The British imperials divided middle east with the help of feudal regims. Finally, British also captured Palestine at the end of War. It was before planned that Palestine belonged to Jews. All the Jews were settled in Palestine with the help of British.

 

Penulis: Aqib Farooq Mir  
Email: miraqib454@gmail.com

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